The submission of a dispute to an unbiased third person designated by the parties to the controversy, who agree in advance to comply with the award—a decision to be issued after a hearing at which both parties have an opportunity to be heard.
Arbitration is a well-established and widely used means to end disputes. It is one of several kindsof Alternative Dispute Resolution, which provide parties to a controversy with a choice other than litigation. Unlike litigation, arbitration takes place out of court: the two sides select an impartial third party, known as an arbitrator; agree in advance to comply with the arbitrator's award; and then participate in a hearing at which both sides can present evidence and testimony.
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Corporate law(also known asbusiness laworenterprise lawor sometimescompany law) is the body oflawgoverning therights, relations, andconductofpersons,companies,organizationsandbusinesses. It refers to the legal practice relating to, or the theory ofcorporations. Corporate law often describes the law relating to matters which derive directly from the life-cycle of a corporation.It thus encompasses the formation, funding, governance, and death of a corporation.
The body of law that governs the employer-employee relationship, including individual employment contracts, the application of TORT and contract doctrines, and a large group of statutory regulation on issues such as the right to organize and negotiate collective bargaining agreements, protection from discrimination, wages and hours, and health and safety.
The legal definition of real estate or real property is land and the buildings on it. Real estate law governs who may own and use the land.
This simple concept includes a wide range of different legal disciplines. First, real estate may be either residential or commercial. It can be owned by one person but used by another through rental arrangements. Land can be bought or sold, and due to its high value, there are many local laws that ensure real estate transactions are properly performed and recorded. Land may also pass between family members through estate planning or may be owned by more than one person. Finally, state and local governments have rules concerning the purposes for which land may be used
A body of rules and statutes that defines conduct prohibited by the government because it threatens and harms public safety and welfare and that establishes punishment to be imposed for the commission of such acts.
The term criminal law generally refers to substantive criminal laws. Substantive criminal laws define crimes and may establish punishments. In contrast, Criminal Procedure describes the process through which the criminal laws are enforced.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.
Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity, life, and safety; protection fromdiscrimination on grounds such as race, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, color, age, political affiliation, ethnicity, religion, and disability; and individual rights such as privacy and the freedom of thought, speech, religion, press, assembly, and movement..
Commercial law provides the rules that merchants and others involved in commerce must follow as they conduct business amongst themselves and with consumers. It governs the sales of goods and services, negotiable instruments, security interests, leases, principal and agent relationships, contracts of carriage, and much more. In a broad sense, commercial law also encompasses related issues like business bankruptcy and tax planning.
Because various legal issues may be included or excluded from the subject of commercial law depending upon how expansively it is defined, it may be more helpful to consider the matter in terms of timing. Commercial law covers legal issues that arise prior to the initiation of a lawsuit. By contrast, once a lawsuit is filed, the same issues are more properly characterized as litigation. Thus, commercial law attorneys help their clients negotiate and enter into business deals. Litigation attorneys help their clients defend their interests in court when deals go bad.
Relationships offer wonderful benefits for wellbeing, life satisfaction, and stress management, but none are without their challenges. These issues can put a strain on a couple, but working through them can either strengthen their bond or push them apart, depending on how they handle the challenges they face. Working through marriage problems in a healthy way can be very difficult, especially because stressors in a marriage can come from many different sources.
Cyber crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cyber crime also includes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hate crimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts are considered to be cyber crimes when the illegal activities are committed through the use of a computer and the Internet
Intellectual property(IP) is a category ofpropertythat includes intangible creations of the human intellect.There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than others.The most well-known types arecopyrights,patents,trademarks, andtrade secrets. Early precursors to some types of intellectual property existed in societies such asAncient Rome, but the modern concept of intellectual property developed in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. The term "intellectual property" began to be used in the 19th century, though it was not until the late 20th centurythat intellectual property became commonplace in the majority of the world's legal systems
The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a wide variety of intellectual goods.To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create, usually for a limited period of time. This gives economic incentive for their creation, because it allows people to profit from the information and intellectual goods they create.These economic incentives are expected to stimulate innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries, which depends on the extent of protection granted to innovators
Theintangiblenature of intellectual property presents difficulties when compared with traditional property like land or goods. Unlike traditional property, intellectual property is "indivisible", since an unlimited number of people can "consume" an intellectual good without it being depleted. Additionally, investments in intellectual goods suffer from problems of appropriation: a landowner can surround theirland with a robust fence and hire armed guards to protect it, but a producer of information or literature can usually do very little to stop their first buyer from replicating it and selling it at a lower price. Balancing rights so that they are strong enough to encourage the creation of intellectual goods but not so strong that they prevent the goods' wide use is the primary focus of modern intellectual property law.